Ecclesiastes (Hebr. qohelet — Preaching to the Congregation ") is a monument to the Hebrew or allegorical literature, dating from the IV and III centuries. BC. e. (attempts at dating his later time does not withstand criticism). Arose Wednesday professional scribes (latest PostScript gives an image of the author of the book: "Besides that Ecclesiastes was wise, he still taught the people knowledge, and weighed and tested and developed many sentiments"). Announcement of the book refers to the author of the "son of David, King in Jerusalem; for the reader it could mean one-King Solomon, and if there was a misunderstanding, then planned and provoked by. Author from time to time how would playfully trying on literary mask, describing his attempts to find satisfaction in Royal luxury and disappointment. Generally speaking, the custom attribute collections of aphorisms "wise" Kings of yore tradition existed in ancient Egyptian literature and from it moved in Hebrew: so, Solomon was attributed to "the book of proverbs. But here we have before us more: the author is not just nadpisyvaet on his book the name of Solomon, but really enters the image velikolepnejšego of the Kings of Judah, introducing mixed pairing of two plans — tone-personal and legendary history. The traditional image of Solomon is taken as a paradigm for integrating internal life experiences. This consciousness of reception, this taste for inspired, meaningful, mnogoznačitel′nomu «razygryvaniû» reader — a trait just as rare on the General background of ancient literature, as typical for e.
The main motive of e. — the futility of attempts to fully embrace life, dominate it in practice or to exhaust her thought. All these attempts-hebel-"blow" (as we would say "Fuk" — blew, and no!), IE. (e). "vanity" or "vanity".
Vanity of vanities, says Ecclesiastes — vanity of vanities and all is vanity!
That for profit a man from all works, what it is working under the Sun?
Generation goes, generation comes and the Earth abides forever.
The sun rises, the Sun, rushes to his seat and goes back again.
… What was will,
and that was rendered, that is,
and there is nothing new under the Sun.
(Lane. With. Averintsev).
It is significant that the author complains there is nothing else than to the very stability returning to the space itself, which was for the Greek poets and philosophers the source of consolation, even Rapture; natural cycles are not happy with its regularity, but it suggests boredom of its rigidity. "Eternal return", which seemed to the Pythagoreans sublime mystery of existence here as intolerable and unforgettable nonsense. This specificity skepticism e.: the author excruciatingly doubted (and hence in dire need) is not in the world of harmony and in the global sense, he lost not divine Cosmos, and sacred history. "Stupidity" which hopes to manage life and traditional "wisdom" that hopes to explain life, e. contrasts the incredulous wise-engagement in life with her fragile but genuine pleasures (EOT. "the Egyptian Song Harper and korčmarki Council of the gods in the epic of Gilgamesh). For E. to retain its value idea neiz″âsnimoesti, incomprehensibility, zapredel′nosti God. He had no doubt God, but questioned the religion as a form of human activity (and therefore is a human "fuss"). God is, but hardly with him you can talk and know something about it; action of God in the world conceived of as the complete opposite of human action limit "profane" attempts to fix something, or make in a Word. Such a synthesis of mysticism and fatalism with cocky and sober common sense anticipates the spiritual warehouse, which over the centuries is characteristic of philosophical poetry of the East.
Attempts to find this. any significant traces of Hellenistic influence had not been successful. Much more will undoubtedly impact the ancient traditions or allegorical literature of Egypt and especially Mesopotamia. Vol′nodumnye tendencies have not prevented e. Enter the Canon of the Bible (after disputes, Russians in "Mishneh"-part of the Talmud).
A large dictionary of cultural studies … Kononenko B.i.. 2003.